Type One Diabetes is still regarded as irreversible, unlike Type Two Diabetes which is clearly reversible and is the subject of a separate report. It is important to have a clear idea of just what Type One Diabetes refers to. Special areas in the pancreas gland, the islets of Langerhans, produce a hormone called insulin. This hormone is a protein of small size. Insulin stimulates muscle cells and other body cells to take up glucose from the blood and convert the glucose to glycogen, a kind of starch, and then the glycogen is stored. The function of the body requires that the body cells convert the glycogen to glucose and use it as fuel. In this way insulin keeps the glucose level in the blood at a normal size.
When Type One Diabetes has established itself in the body the cells producing insulin are destroyed. Less glucose is taken up from the blood into the body cells and utilised there, and glucose accumulates in the blood.
Type One Diabetes is far less common than Type Two Diabetes and tends to affect predominently younger people. People under the age of 40 can succumb to Type One Diabetes but most frequently Type One Diabetes is diagnosed in children under the age of fourteen. There are people who have been diagnosed with it after forty but it is quite rare.
What causes Type One Diabetes
All forms of Diabetes should be taken seriously. Type One Diabetes is the worst kind as It is directly associated with the body´s inability to create insulin. It is a dysfunction of the pancreas where it will just stop making insulin in the amount the body needs to maintain a normal level of glucose in the blood. The cause of the disease is not well known. An auto-immune response attacking the insulin producing cells in the langerhansian islets may be a cause. Virus infection may be another cause. The disease may also be inherited.
When the glucose uptake into the body cells is reduced, and instead glucose accumulates in the blood, the following physiological effects occur:
-The body cells do not get enough fuel for the work they need to do.
-The molecular thickness (osmality) of the blood increases. This causes water to be pulled out from the body tissues and into the blood. The tissues thus dry out and urine production increases.
-The tissues of the body begin to break down protein and fat to get energy. This will cause weight loss and muscular reduction.
Hyperglycemia is where your glucose level in the blood is too high. The common symptoms of hyperglycemia or Type One Diabetes include frequent hunger pangs, unusual frequency of urination and constant thirst. You can experience blurred vision, unexpected fatigue, and sometimes what seems to be inexplicable weight loss. The ability of the body to heal itself is diminished (meaning it will take you a long time to heal a wound or cut). The mouth seems to be dry most of the time. The skin can feel dry or itchy. Male impotence is another worrying factor with Type One Diabetes. Furthermore because your immune system is weakened you are liable to pick up a variety of infections easily.
An explanation of the symptoms of Type One Diabetes
The reason why you are always hungry is because your body can not use glucose as its energy source. It is also, why you tire out easily. Since the body can not absorb sugar or glucose into the blood cells you will release it through frequent trips to the bathroom. As a sufferer of Type One Diabetes you make many trips a day to the bathroom, your body recognises that it is losing excess water and that’s why you will become thirsty. You may experience some of the symptoms all together or it may take some time for your body to go through the process. Most likely though it will be a gradual process.
The reason why people develop the autoimmune disorder can vary considerably and genetics can be responsible. You may simply have the disorder because an immediate family member has it.
Because you have Type One Diabetes the body will start to see it’s own tissue as a foreign object. It then it destroys the body’s ability to make insulin. Causes, other than genetics, may be a result infections like the mumps, rubella, measles, influenza, polio, or other viruses. That’s why it is very common in young children because those epidemics affect younger children more often than adults.
Prescribed Insulin Injections to compensate
for the body`s inability to cope
Doctors prescribe injections of insulin to fight off the effects of Type One Diabetes. When the insulin is absorbed into the blood stream the cells that need insulin will then control the levels of sugar in the blood. The timing of the injections and the quantities of insulin involved vary from patient to patient. Great care is required to get the balance right. If the blood sugar level is not stabilized to a normal value, there will be an accumulation of chemicals in the body called ketones, and this condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis. This serious condition can lead to coma and death. The signs of ketoacidosis are:
-Pain in the stomach
-High pulse rate
-Somnolence (abnormal tendency to sleep)
In the long term, Type One Diabetes can severely damage the blood vessels in vital organs. This can further cause damage to the heart, eyes, kidneys or other body organs.
Your physician, having established a comfortable regime of insulin injections with you, will help you to fight the rigours of the disease.
Despite the dangers of the disease Type One Diabetes sufferers can enjoy a comparatively normal life. Close control of what and when you eat, as advised by your doctor, becomes an important part of your daily existence. However it is essential for the patient to ensure that the insulin shots can always be given at the right time under all circumstances. Regular monitoring of the condition by a professional physian is advised. The good news is that most sufferers who have followed the advice of their doctors go on to enjoy a healthy lifestyle with an average life span thanks to researches of the past and good prospects for further research in the future.